Filipínske zlato: Poklady zabudnutých kráľovstiev

Filipínske zlato: Poklady zabudnutých kráľovstiev

Tento rovnomenný výstavný katalóg, ktorý bol publikovaný pri príležitosti otvorenia výstavy „Philippine Gold: Treasures of Forgotten Kingdoms“, organizovaný Asia Society, New York a Ayala Museum na Filipínach v roku 2015, predstavuje verejnosti záhadný pre -hispánske kráľovstvá filipínskeho súostrovia. Upravila kurátorka múzea Ázijskej spoločnosti Florina H. Capistrano-Baker, Filipínske zlato je vynikajúcou premiérou v oblasti remesiel starovekých Filipín.

Stručne napísané iba na 100 stranách, Filipínske zlato situuje artefakty nachádzajúce sa na výstave do širokého sociálno-historického kontextu z východnej a juhovýchodnej Ázie. Kráľovstvá starovekých Filipín boli osídlené vyspelými spoločnosťami s vynikajúcou metalurgickou technológiou dlho pred príchodom Ferdinanda Magellana a španielskych prieskumníkov v roku 1521 n. L. Staroveké Filipíny ležali na priesečníku obchodu medzi Indickým a Tichým oceánom. Monzúny privádzali obchodníkov, námorníkov a misionárov na filipínske súostrovie stovky rokov pred príchodom Španielov, takže nie je prekvapením, že mnohé z vystavených kúskov majú štylistické, ikonografické a technické podobnosti so vzdialenými a susednými kultúrami. Aj keď sa to môže zdať zrejmé vzhľadom na prevládajúce monzúnové počasie, menej uznávané je, že Filipíny boli a zostali centrom ťažby zlata. (Filipíny majú druhé najväčšie ložisko zlata na svete a pri čítaní to určite pochopíte Filipínske zlato!)

Text najskôr vymedzuje dôležitosť konkrétnych nálezov a pokladov - ako napríklad „poklad Surigao“ objavený v osemdesiatych rokoch minulého storočia - a potom sa zameriava na témy súvisiace so starovekou metalurgiou, starobylým kráľovstvom Butan a boxerským kódexom zo 16. storočia n. L. poskytuje obrazové dôkazy o predhispánskych kostýmoch a šperkoch. Skutočná užitočnosť Filipínske zlato spočíva v prieskume a následnej analýze 117 predmetov výstavy: vynikajúce ozdoby hlavy, krku, trupu, pásu a uší; slávnostné zbrane; rituálne držiaky; a votívne náboženské kúsky svedčia o jednoznačnom vplyve starovekej Indie a indializovaných kráľovstiev juhovýchodnej Ázie na mnohé profilované objekty. (Niekoľko položiek má obmedzený vplyv z Číny.) Tí, ktorí nevedia nič o Filipínach a jeho histórii, budú môcť oceniť zlaté práce na najzákladnejšej úrovni. Tí z nás, ktorí už niečo vedia o ázijskom umení a kultúre, tiež uvidia niečo úplne nové. Tieto pozoruhodné objekty rozširujú naše chápanie raného námorného obchodu a kultúrnej výmeny.

V katalógu je umiestnená užitočná mapa Filipín, časová os filipínskej histórie a kontrolný zoznam k výstave s obrázkami všetkých artefaktov. Na konci filipínskeho zlata sa objavujú aj bibliografické odkazy v angličtine, francúzštine a španielčine, ale človek je prekvapený, že v tagalogu nevidí žiadne názvy. Tento zoznam je však užitočný pre vedcov, ktorí sa chcú dozvedieť viac.

AHE odporúča tento nádherný katalóg záujemcom o ázijskú históriu, archeológiu a dejiny umenia. Obrázky vo filipínskom zlate sú honosné a úchvatné. Čitatelia môžu byť zvedaví, keď uvidia samotné obrázky.

Filipínske zlato. Asia Society, 2015, pevné dosky, 100 strán, farebné obrázky. K dispozícii od Asia Society


Philippine Gold: Treasures of Forgotten Kingdoms v Asia Society Museum v New Yorku, 11. septembra 2015 a#8211 3. januára 2016

“ Expozícia predstavuje nedávno vykopané objekty, ktoré poukazujú na prosperitu a úspechy málo známych filipínskych kráľovstiev, ktoré prekvitali dlho predtým, ako Španieli objavili tento región a kolonizovali ho. Výstava obsahuje približne 120 predmetov z desiateho až trinásteho storočia a ukazuje sofistikované techniky spracovania zlata vyvinuté v tomto období. Prevažná väčšina diel na výstave je zapožičaná z Múzea Ayala a Zbierky zlata Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas a nikdy nebola vystavená mimo Filipín. “ - Múzeum Ázijskej spoločnosti

Kinnari. Surigao, ca. 10. – 13. Storočie. Zlato. V. 4 ¾ x š. 2 15/16 palcov (12 x 7,5 cm). Zbierka múzea Ayala, kat. Č. 81,5189. Fotografia Neal Oshima Obrázok so súhlasom múzea Ayala

Ozdoba do ucha. Východné Visayas alebo severovýchodné Mindanao, ca. 10. – 13. Storočie. Zlato. Priemer 1 5/8 palcov (4,2 cm). Zbierka múzea Ayala, kat. Č. 73,4192. Fotografia Neal Oshima Obrázok so súhlasom múzea Ayala

Sada troch veľkých náramkov. Baggao, provincia Cagayan, Luzon, ca. 10. – 13. Storočie. Zlato. A: W. 2 11/16 x priemer. 2 15/16 palcov (6,8 x 7,5 cm). B: W. 1 9/16 x priemer. 2 13/16 palcov (4,0 x 7,2 cm). C: W. 1 1/16 x priemer. 2 15/16 palcov (2,7 x 7,5 cm). Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas, G6P-1983-0003, G6P-1983-0005, G6P-1983-0006. Fotografia od parochne Tysmans Obrázok so súhlasom Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas (Centrálna banka Filipín)

Ozdoby do uší. Butuan, Augusan del Norte, ca. 10. – 13. Storočie. Zlato. V. 1 1/2 x š. 1 1/4 palca (3,5 x 3,3 cm). Zbierka múzea Ayala, kat. Č. 75,4229AB. Fotografia Neal Oshima Obrázok so súhlasom múzea Ayala

Pohár. Surigao, ca. 10. – 13. Storočie. Zlato. H. 1 1⁄4 x priemer 3 1/6 palca (3,1 x 7,8 cm). Zbierka múzea Ayala, kat. Č. 81,5166. Fotografia Neal Oshima Obrázok so súhlasom múzea Ayala

Ohlávka. Surigao, ca. 10. – 13. Storočie. Zlato. L. 59 1/16 x W. 1 1/16 (150 x 2,7 cm). Zbierka múzea Ayala, kat. Č. 81,5186. Fotografia Neal Oshima Obrázok so súhlasom múzea Ayala

Sada dvoch závaží do pása. Poklad Surigao, provincia Surigao del Sur, ca. 10. – 13. Storočie. Zlato. Každý: H. 2 3/8 palcov (6 cm). Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas, G7P-1981-0003. Fotografia od parochne Tysmans Obrázok so súhlasom Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas (Centrálna banka Filipín)

Ozdoby do uší. Arasasan, Mindanao. Ca. 10. – 13. Storočie. A: H. 4 11/16 x W. 3 1/8 palcov (11,9 x 7,9 cm) B: H. 4 11/16 x W. 3 1/16 palcov (11,9 x 7,8 cm). Zbierka múzea Ayala, kat. Č. 76,4479AB. Fotografia Neal Oshima Obrázok so súhlasom múzea Ayala

Pás. Surigao, ca. 10. – 13. Storočie. Zlato. L. 26 7/8 x W. 1 15/16 (68,2 x 4,9 cm). Zbierka múzea Ayala, kat. Č. 81,5176. Fotografia Neal Oshima Obrázok so súhlasom múzea Ayala

Sada dvoch spôn na opasok. Butuan, provincia Agusan del Norte, ca. 10. – 13. Storočie. Zlato. Každý: H. 4 ¼ palcov (10,8 cm). Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas, G7P-1981-0001, G7P-1981-0002. Fotografia od parochne Tysmans Obrázok so súhlasom Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas (Centrálna banka Filipín)

Ozdoby do uší. Ostrov Mindoro, ca. 10. – 13. Storočie. Zlato. Každý: W. 2 ¾ palcov (7 cm). Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas, G5P-1983-0018. Fotografia od parochne Tysmans Obrázok so súhlasom Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas (Centrálna banka Filipín)

Maska Butuan, Augusan del Norte, ca. 10. – 13. Storočie. Zlato. V. 8 7/16 x š. 6 7/16 palcov (21,5 x 16,3 cm). Zbierka múzea Ayala, kat. Č. 76,4795. Fotografia Neal Oshima Obrázok so súhlasom múzea Ayala


Filipínske zlato: Poklady zabudnutých kráľovstiev

Táto výstava predstavuje veľkolepé diela zo zlata, ktoré boli objavené predovšetkým za posledných štyridsať rokov na filipínskych ostrovoch Luzon, Visayas a Mindanao. Odlesky, šperky, obradné zbrane a rituálne a pohrebné predmety svedčia o nedávno objavených dôkazoch prosperity a úspechu filipínskych občianskych spoločností, ktoré prekvitali medzi desiatym a trinástym storočím, dlho predtým, ako tento región objavili a osídlili Španieli. Napriek tomu, že sa formy a štýly väčšiny týchto diel vyvíjali lokálne, niektoré naznačujú, že filipínski remeselníci boli počas silného ekonomického rozmachu Ázie vystavení predmetom spoza hraníc prostredníctvom silných kultúrnych spojení a námorného obchodu v juhovýchodnej Ázii.

Filipínske súostrovie s viac ako 7 000 ostrovmi leží medzi Tichým oceánom a Indickým oceánom v oblasti mimo ázijskej pevniny známej ako Ostrov juhovýchodnej Ázie. V čase, keď výtvarníci a remeselníci vytvárali diela na tejto výstave, námorníci, obchodníci, misionári a emisári brázdili vody spájajúce tropické ostrovy so vzdialenými krajinami vrátane Číny a Indie. Monzúnové vetry určovali príchody a odchody obchodných lodí - ročné obdobie, kedy pristávali, ako dlho sa zdržiavali a kedy vyplávali. Prístavné osady v blízkosti chránených zátok, akými sú staroveký Butuan pri ústí rieky Agusan, kde sa vlieva do zálivu Butuan na severovýchode Mindanaa, priťahovali lode a námorníkov, ktorí hľadali útočisko pred silným juhozápadným vetrom, ktorý fúkal od mája do novembra. Niektoré z týchto obchodných lodí obchodovali za prírodné zdroje toho, čo staroveké indické texty označujú ako Survarnadvipa alebo „Ostrovy zlata“, čo je geografický názov, o ktorom sa vedci domnievajú, že sa týka ostrovov juhovýchodnej Ázie, vrátane Sumatry v Indonézii a neďalekého Mindanaa a Luzon na Filipínach.


Recenzia: „Filipínske zlato: Poklady zabudnutých kráľovstiev“

Viac ako pol tisícročia predtým, ako sa Ferdinand Magellan v roku 1521 dostal na súostrovie, ktoré sa dnes nazýva Filipíny, sa tam darilo mnohým spriazneným spoločnostiam. Málo sa o nich vie. Nezanechali žiadnu pretrvávajúcu architektúru, pamiatky ani literatúru. Jedna vec je však istá: Boli to ohromne šikovní zlatníci.

Veľkorysá ukážka práce týchto neznámych ľudí v zlate je prezentovaná v „Philippine Gold: Treasures of Forgotten Kingdoms“, nádhernej a historicky pútavej expozícii asi 120 kusov z 10. až 13. storočia.

Organizátorom je Adriana Proser z Ázijskej spoločnosti a ako konzultantka kurátorka Florina Capistrano-Baker z múzea Ayala na Filipínach, ku ktorej patrí väčšina zobrazených predmetov. Súčasťou výstavy sú náramky, náramky, náhrdelníky, prívesky, prsné pásy, obojky, prsty prstene, misky, misky, váhová váha vyrobená výlučne zo zlata a trojuholníkových kúskov so zaoblenými rohmi nazývanými „kryty cudnosti“, navrhnuté tak, aby ich ženy nosili cez svoje genitálie. Mnoho predmetov na výstave je tak malých a jemne vyrobených, že je takmer nemožné oceniť ich detaily voľným okom. Našťastie sú k dispozícii lupy a divákom sa odporúča, aby ich používali na zázraky technickej zdatnosti, ktoré odhaľujú.

Hviezdou šou a najväčším kúskom je lesknúca sa šerpa, ktorú by sme si mohli mýliť s futuristickým muničným opaskom. Je vyrobený z nespočetných zlatých korálikov a je navrhnutý tak, aby sa nosil cez jedno rameno, cez hrudník a do bokov, kde jeden koniec prevlečie slučku a končí nastavením teraz strateného finále. Takmer päť stôp dlhý a štvorcových častí (asi palec na boku) váži asi deväť libier.

Ďalší pozoruhodný kúsok, nazývaný kamagi, pozostáva z 12 náhrdelníkov navlečených do takmer 15 stôp dlhej reťaze prerušovanej malými farebnými kamienkami. Jednotlivé náhrdelníky sú zložené z hladkých, do seba zapadajúcich korálikov, ktoré sa kombinujú a vytvárajú pružné, hadie dĺžky zlata.

Existuje niekoľko pásov s luxusne ozdobnými sponami. Pásy sú široké asi dva palce a dlhé dve alebo viac stôp sú vyrábané hlavne technikou „slučka v slučke“, ktorá vytvára vzory ako pletený sveter. Rúrkové a iné druhy korálikov vpletené do pásov prelínajú cikcakové a pruhované vzory.

Niektoré zo zobrazených predmetov obsahujú obrazové snímky, ale tie, ktoré áno, sú obzvlášť pozoruhodné. Plochý kus s plameňovým obrysom rámuje veľkú trojuholníkovú tvár ženy nakreslenú v ostrých líniách s malými ramenami a rukami zdvihnutými v uctievacom geste. Nad hlavou má symbol stromu života. Aj keď v niektorých ďalších dielach sú hinduistické a budhistické vplyvy evidentné, toto naznačuje náboženstvo založené na prírode. Diváka tiež zaujíma, aké ďalšie druhy obrazových tradícií mali títo raní Filipínci, ale zdá sa, že sa o tom nikdy nedozvieme.

Ako to, že boli zabudnuté znalosti kultúry - alebo zbierky kultúr - schopnej takého vynikajúceho a sofistikovaného spracovania kovov, a zostali bez mena? To je zamotaný príbeh.

Zlata bolo na Filipínach vždy veľa, ľahko sa zbieralo ryžovaním. Dnes sa v krajine uvádza, že má druhé najbohatšie ložiská zlata na svete. Keď Španieli pristáli, našli domorodcov, ktorí mali veľa zlatých šperkov a odrôd. Ilustrácie v knihe z roku 1590 s názvom „The Boxer Codex“, ktorá je na výstave k videniu, zobrazujú domorodých ľudí, ktorí nosia honosné zlaté ozdoby na splývavých, farebných odevoch. Španielski kolonizátori však strácali málo času na zdecimovanie pôvodných kultúr a na útek so zlatom, ktoré roztavili na vlastné účely.

Prvé moderné objavy prekoloniálneho zlata urobil francúzsky bádateľ Alfred Marche, ktorý v roku 1881 odhalil na pohrebiskách na ostrove Marinduque asi 10 kusov v drevených rakvách a čínskych exportných nádobách. (Na základe uhlíkového datovania keramických nádob, v ktorých sa pravidelne nachádzali zlaté kúsky, archeológovia neskôr zistili, že väčšina zlata, ktoré vyšlo najavo, bola vyrobená v 10. až 13. storočí.)

V nasledujúcich desaťročiach sa tu a tam objavilo viac zlatých artefaktov, ale až o sto rokov neskôr došlo k ďalšiemu veľkému nálezu. Jedného apríla, 1981, obsluha ťažkých strojov Edilberto Morales pracovala na projekte zavlažovania v provincii Surigao del Sur na ostrove Mindanao, keď omylom objavil kovovú misku, ktorá sa ukázala byť vyrobená zo zlata. Táto čiastočne prehĺbená, elegantne jednoduchá nádoba je na výstave. Počas zvyšku dňa pán Morales odhalil mnoho ďalších zlatých kúskov - v hodnote 22 libier - toho, čo bolo známe ako poklad Surigao.

Na miesto sa rýchlo hrnuli rabovači, ktorí nabrali nespočetné množstvo predmetov, ktoré predali dílerom a zberateľom, čím v skutočnosti zničili mnohé archeologické dôkazy. Pán Morales a jeho rodina sa skryli zo strachu pred zlodejmi a únoscami, ktorí sa zaujímali o jeho náhle predpokladané bohatstvo.

Všetko zlato by zostalo roztrúsené po celom svete, ale za úsilie troch ľudí odhodlaných zachovať tento základný rozmer filipínskeho dedičstva. V rokoch 1960 až 1981 archeologička Cecilia Y. Locsin a jej manžel, architekt Leandro V. Locsin nakupovali zlaté kusy od dílerov, ako aj od kopačov hrobov, roľníkov a rybárov, ktorí diela získali viac či menej tienistými prostriedkami. Dvojica nahromadila viac ako 1 000 zlatých predmetov, ktoré teraz vlastní múzeum Ayala.

Začiatkom osemdesiatych rokov minulého storočia Jaime C. Laya, vtedajší guvernér Filipínskej centrálnej banky, získal do zbierky banky mnoho predmetov z pokladu Surigao. Z tejto zbierky je asi 28 predmetov výstavy.

Aj keď sa tým veľa ušetrilo, oveľa viac sa stratilo. Jeden z najkrajších kúskov relácie nechtiac odráža krehkosť starodávnych tradícií. Je to malá socha v podobe vtáka s hlavou ženy, typu mýtického tvora známeho ako kinnari. (Pretože sa hybrid človeka a vtáka často objavuje v hinduistickom a budhistickom umení, naznačuje to vplyvy z iných častí Ázie pravdepodobne prostredníctvom námorných obchodných trás.) O veľkosti stehlíka je hlava zaliata zlatom a jeho dutý, tenký stenové telo vpísané vzorom peria. Je smutné, že jeho krídla boli amputované, pravdepodobne bezohľadným lovcom zlata, a jeho telo je čiastočne rozdrvené. V tomto zranenom stave má napriek tomu ukrutnú, poetickú vlastnosť, ako keby bola vyrobená týmto spôsobom, aby nariekala na pominuteľnú povahu umenia a života.


Filipínske zlato: výstava Poklady zabudnutých kráľovstiev v New Yorku

Je až šialené, ako málo toho vieme o prehistorickej histórii a aká veľká časť našej histórie je. V škole strávime zhruba mesiac prehistorickou/prehistorickou históriou. S touto rýchlosťou získate predstavu, že Negritos, Malajci a Indonézia prišli po sebe, potom nás Španieli objavili v priebehu niekoľkých desaťročí.

Časová os je viac podobná, domorodci sa nasťahovali asi pred 30 000 rokmi a proto-austronézania alebo Malajci prišli asi pred 5 000 rokmi. A potom sú tu kosti Callao, ktoré dokázali, že už v prehistórii žili ľudia asi pred 60 000 rokmi.

Pokiaľ ide o generácie, od našej generácie do doby, keď prišli Španieli, to je 16 generácií (za predpokladu, že sa generácia objaví asi o 30 rokov neskôr), ale kým prišli Španieli, malajská migrácia z Taiwanu, POSLEDNÁ z veľkých migrácií , sa už stalo 115 GENERÁCIÍ. Viete si niekedy predstaviť, aké staré bolo tvoje detstvo Lola? To sú iba 3-4 generácie. Predstavte si, koľko času je sto generácií.

Ako staré sú tieto šperky? Dajte to do kontextu v tom, ako dávno si myslíte, že tu boli Španieli. Najstaršie zlato v tomto videu je zhruba 1 000 n. L., Čo znamená, že je pre Španielov rovnako staré, ako prišli, ako je pre nás španielsky príchod v súčasnosti.

Silne podozrievam veľa Filipíncov, že to nevedia, a aj keby to vedeli, nezaujímalo by ich to. Mnohí z nás definujú svoju históriu a kultúru čisto z koloniálneho hľadiska, že všetko, čo bolo pred Španielmi a Američanmi, nie je podľa definície filipínska kultúra, nie je tomu tak ani v skutočnosti. Vydávajú zvuky o kresťanstve, pretože sú vďační kolonizátorom. Nikdy sme neboli krajinou, kým neprišlo Španielsko, nechajme to ísť a podobne.

Najhorší z nich by mohol dokonca povedať, že to bola, ja neviem, satanská propaganda, pohanské predmety, prepracované falzifikáty (ako bol Kalantiawov kódex) alebo že všetky veci pochádzajú z iných miest Ázie, že nie sú naše.

Myslím tým, že každý hovorí o tom, že naša história je „300 rokov v kláštore a 50 v Hollywoode“. Jessica Zafra dodala, že už viac ako 66 000 rokov a viac nevieme o ničom, a ja som ochotný s ňou súhlasiť.

Ak čítate H. P. Lovecrafta, musí vám to pripadať ako objavovanie prehistorických mimozemských civilizácií Starších vecí, ktoré milióny rokov pred prvými ľuďmi stavali veľké a komplexné mestá.

Ach, a viete, prečo zostáva tak málo z nášho predkoloniálneho dedičstva? Nie je to jediný dôvod, ale veľká časť je: Španieli zničené to. Bratia. Oni a ich vojaci spálili drevené modly a prekoloniálne drevené domy. Iste, konverzia bola väčšinou mierová (aspoň podľa historických kníh), ale naše idoly našim predkom a našim pôvodným bohom ... ak boli z dreva, boli spálené, ak boli z hliny, boli rozbité. Domnievam sa, že Aztékovia, Inkovia, Mayovia atď. Mali šťastie, pretože mali oveľa väčšie kamenné stavby v oveľa menej prístupných džungliach, z ktorých väčšinu nemohli španielske koloniálne sily úplne zničiť.

Potom sa ľudia čudujú, prečo máme dnes takú krízu kultúrnej identity. Už sa nečudujem. Španielsko bolo pravdepodobne jednou z najúspešnejších koloniálnych ríš pri pretváraní svojich kolónií a kultúry#27 - natoľko, že dokonca aj dnes máte celé skupiny Hispanistov aj v tejto krajine a chceli ste nás vrátiť do koloniálnych čias!


Prediskutovaná história zlata na Filipínach

Na fotografii: Capistrano-Baker a Chuasoto

AMERIČANI mali možnosť dozvedieť sa o zlate a jeho úlohe v histórii Filipín počas prednášky Dr. Floriny Capistrano-Bakerovej na filipínskom veľvyslanectve v USA.

Prednáška bola nazvaná „Filipínske zlato: Poklady zabudnutých kráľovstiev“ a bola súčasťou oslavy Mesiaca filipínsko-amerického dedičstva. Organizovala ho Americko-filipínska spoločnosť s podporou filipínskeho veľvyslanectva.

Fórum bolo doplnkom prebiehajúcej výstavy zlatých predmetov z prekoloniálnych Filipín v New Yorku, ktorú koordinovali Capistrano-Baker, konzultantka kurátora v múzeu Ayala, a Adriana Proserová, senior kurátorka tradičného ázijského umenia v Ázii Johna H. Fostera. Spoločnosť.

Zástupca náčelníka ministra misie Patrick Chuasoto počas úvodných slov prirovnal vlastnosti vzácneho vzácneho kovu k Filipíncom.

"Väčšina ľudí nevie, že zlato je zo všetkých kovov naj tvárnejšie." Ľahko sa ohýba k vonkajším silám bez zlomenia alebo prasknutia. Mení formu, napriek tomu si dokáže zachovať svoje prirodzené vlastnosti. Takto zlato môže symbolizovať esenciu byť Filipíncom. Filipínci ako jednotlivci a ako národ sú uznávaní za svoju odolnosť, schopnosť prispôsobiť sa a asimilovať a zároveň zachovať to, čo je na nich pravdivé, “povedal Chuasoto.

Capistrano-Baker zdieľala históriu Butuanu na južných Filipínach a bola domovom rôznych zlatých predmetov, predovšetkým elitných kráľov, ktorí boli považovaní za súčasť kolektívneho bohatstva vládnucej rodiny.

Výkonný riaditeľ Americko-filipínskej spoločnosti Hank Hendrickson uviedol, že sú radi, že môžu pomôcť poskytnúť americkým publikom viac informácií o tomto období, a povzbudzuje ľudí, aby navštívili výstavu v Múzeu ázijskej spoločnosti v New Yorku.

"Program predhispánskeho filipínskeho zlata predviedol zložité návrhy, odhalil zložité sociálne štruktúry a rozsiahle obchodné väzby na celom Filipínach od 10. do 13. storočia, éru, ktorá sa v histórii až doteraz do značnej miery stratila," povedal Hendrickson.

Capistrano-Baker získala titul PhD, M.Phil. a M.A. z Katedry dejín umenia a archeológie na Kolumbijskej univerzite.

V roku 2008 bola kurátorkou stálej expozície Zlato predkov v múzeu Ayala a napísala katalóg Philippine Ancestral Gold v roku 2011. Je držiteľkou mnohých ocenení vrátane štipendií z Kolumbijskej univerzity, Metropolitného múzea umenia, Ázijskej kultúrnej rady, Forda. Foundation, American Association of University Women and the Getty Research Institute.

Expozícia pozostáva z viac ako 100 zlatých predmetov, väčšinou regálií, šperkov, obradných zbraní a rituálnych a pohrebných predmetov, ktoré boli náhodne objavené v roku 1981 v osade Magroyong pri Butuane. Bude vystavený v Múzeu ázijskej spoločnosti v New Yorku do 3. januára 2016.


História, ktorá má cenu zlata

Vedeli ste, že máme kráľovstvá? & Rdquo Doris Magsaysay Ho sa ma pýtala počas uvedenia & ldquoPhilippine Gold: Treasures of Forgotten Kingdoms, & rdquo orientačnej výstavy, ktorá potrvá celé štyri mesiace od 11. septembra v Múzeu ázijskej spoločnosti v New York City. & ldquo (Existovali) kráľovstvá Butuan, Agusan a Surigao. & rdquo

Aj keď v predhispánskych dobách prekvitalo iné kráľovstvo, Magsaysay-Ho spomenul tieto miesta ako poklady zlatých šperkov pochádzajúce už z 10. storočia, ktoré boli z nich odkryté. Aj keď majú stále aktuálnu menu, ich konečná hodnota spočíva v tom, že boli do ich návrhov pretkané prameňmi života a civilizácie a predstavujú dobre spracované a nádherné objekty s potlačou histórie.

Požičaná v múzeu Ayala a Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas, zlatá zbierka rozpráva príbeh o filipínskom ľude & mdash, aj keď sa ich pôvodní nositelia ešte takto neoznačili. Sú to iskrivé svedectvá osvedčených spoločností, robustného námorného obchodu, sofistikovaného remeselného spracovania a pojmov moci a krásy.

Doris Magsaysay Ho, predsedníčka Asia Society Philippines, dúfa, že viac ako 120 veľkolepých zlatých predmetov v & ldquoPhilippine Gold: Treasures of Forgotten Kingdoms & rdquo poskytne presnejší pohľad na krajinu a rsquos pre-koloniálnu minulosť a bude zaradená do & ldquothe historického štipendia v austronézskom kontexte . & rdquo

& ldquoPracujeme na tom celý rok, & rdquo povedal Magsaysay Ho, predseda Ázijskej spoločnosti Filipíny, o ich príprave. (V tejto iniciatíve jej pomáhajú Fernando Zobel de Ayala a Loida Nicolas Lewis.) & Ldquo V zásade s tým, že APEC (ázijsko-tichomorská hospodárska spolupráca) a celý svet sa zaujímajú o Filipíny, pokiaľ ide o ekonomický aspekt krajiny, pomyslel si, aké úžasné je mať príbeh o našej kultúre a dedičstve. & rdquo

Od náhrdelníkov, reťazí, pásov a náramkov až po rituálne misky, náradie a obradné zbrane-tieto artefakty sa stanú stredobodom pozornosti Newyorčanov (ako aj jeho miliónov návštevníkov a početnej komunity Fil-Am), aby sme sa mohli pozrieť, ako sme sa mali. , pred takzvanými civilizačnými misiami Západu. Ďalšie kúsky z Metropolitného múzea umenia v New Yorku, Musee du Quia Branly v Paríži, Lilly Library v Indiane a niekoľko kúskov z osobnej zbierky rodiny Locsinovcov doplnia a rozšíria výstavu a rsquos rozprávanie kované z drahého kovu.

Pre Magsaysayho Ho je dôležité, aby si zbierka uľahčila cestu do historických kníh a našla si miesto vo väčšom príbehu ľudskej civilizácie. & ldquoJedným z našich cieľov je mať štipendium na týchto (zlatých kúskoch) skutočne zavedené a pochopené, & rdquo, povedala. & ldquo Chceme, aby ľudia vedeli o predhispánskom zlate na Filipínach, aby si mohlo nájsť svoje miesto v histórii. Sympóziá v štátoch sa zamerajú na to, ako je naše zlato umiestnené vo vzťahu k juhovýchodnej Ázii. & Rdquo

Jedným z takýchto sympózií je & ldquoEncounter with Early Gold, & rdquo, ktoré budú viesť kurátorky & ldquoPhilippine Gold & rdquo Nina Capistrano-Baker, bývalá riaditeľka múzea Ayala a Adriana Proser, John H. Foster, senior kurátor tradičného ázijského umenia v Ázijskej spoločnosti New York. Diskusia bude zahŕňať nové skúmanie štipendií a nové porozumenie ázijských národov v kontexte obchodu so zlatom a pohybu medzi 10. a 13. storočím. & Rdquo Kurátormi sú MJ Louise Bolunia, hlavná archeologička Národného múzea na Filipínach a John Guy , kurátor Herberta Irvinga umenia južnej a juhovýchodnej Ázie v Metropolitnom múzeu umenia.

Kusy zlatých šperkov, ako napríklad tento ozdoba do ucha z východného Visayasu, dokazujú, že v predhispánskych dobách existovali dobre zavedené spoločnosti, robustný námorný obchod a sofistikované remeselné spracovanie.

Pre Capistrano-Baker a Proser je táto výstava významná, pretože poskytuje ohromný dôkaz, že Filipíny mali pred západným kontaktom prepracovanú kultúru. Vynikajúca kvalita zlatých ozdôb tiež ruší západný stereotyp predkoloniálnych Filipíncov ako ignorantských a primitívnych divochov pred civilizačnými vplyvmi zo Španielska a Ameriky. & Rdquo

Dúfajú, že & ldquoPhilippine Gold: Treasures of Forgotten Kingdoms & rdquo bude ďalej vytvárať výskum, diskurz a štipendium na predkoloniálnych Filipínach a v tomto procese & ldquodeepen náš zmysel pre to, kým sme boli ako ľudia predtým, ako sa k našim brehom dostal islam a kresťanstvo, a viacvrstvová, kolektívna minulosť, vďaka ktorej sme dnes tým, kým sme. & rdquo


Filipínska história, tepaná zlatom

MANILA - Mnoho Filipíncov a cudzincov príliš dlho pracovalo s mylným vnímaním, že krajina do veku západného vplyvu sužuje vek ignorancie. Exponát dúfa, že prispeje k rozptýleniu tejto predstavy a vrhne na túto záležitosť zlaté svetlo.

Od 10. septembra 2015 do 3. januára 2016 bude Ázijská spoločnosť prezentovať „Filipínske zlato: Poklady zabudnutých kráľovstiev“-výstavu, ktorá sa bude zhodovať so sériou prednášok o rôznych aspektoch predkoloniálnej filipínskej kultúry, ktorá používala zlato v každodenná ozdoba, obchod a pohrebné obrady. Bude to vôbec prvýkrát, čo bude výstava tohto rozsahu prinesená do USA, pričom bude vyzdvihnutá zručnosť a umenie predkoloniálnych Filipín.

Zobrazenie veľkolepej vyrovnávacej pamäte s viac ako 120 predmetmi objavenými za posledných 40 rokov z rôznych miest z Luzonu, Visayasu a Mindanaa, bude zamerané na staroveké komunity nachádzajúce sa v Butuane, Samare, Cebu, Leyte, Palawane, Mindoro, Marinduque a Luzon. Znovuzískané poklady zahŕňajú náhrdelníky, náramky, korálky, opasky, obradné zbrane, rituálne plavidlá a ďalšie nástroje, ktoré ukazujú zložité spracovanie a skvelé umenie. Starostlivo vybrané položky budú požičané z Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas, v ktorom sa nachádza zbierka zlata Met a z múzea Ayala, v ktorom sa nachádza zbierka Loscin.

Medzi cenené exponáty patrí kinnari (v súčasnosti v múzeu Ayala), plavidlo nachádzajúce sa v Butuane, ktoré zobrazuje okrídlenú ženu, ktorej výrazne filipínske črty tvorila rovnaká šikovná ruka, ktorá znázorňovala jej elegantné vtáčie krídla a perie, starostlivo česané vlasy. a úhľadnú drdol a diadém zdobiaci jej obočie. Skutočnosť, že predhispánske filipínske subkultúry boli dostatočne sofistikované na to, aby mali sedem rôznych stupňov rozlišujúcich kvalitu zlata-„dalisay“ alebo 24K považovaný za najlepšiu kvalitu-poukazuje na stratenú históriu alebo rozprávanie, keď mali Filipíny bohatú obchodnú kultúru, ktorá nie zlato používal iba ako platbu za tovary a služby, ale používal ho aj v posmrtnom živote.

V spolupráci s Florinou Capistrano-Baker z Ayala Museum a Adrianou Proser z Asia Society sa na výstave predstavia aj súčasní návrhári doplnkov: Wynn Wynn Ong Tina Ocampo zo Celestiny Bea Valdes a Rafe Totengco.

„Filipínske zlato: Poklady zabudnutých kráľovstiev“, ktoré oslavuje poklady legendárnej minulosti, dúfa, že Filipínom prinesie hrdosť, silný zmysel pre národnú identitu a odkaz, že bude mať šťastie, že sa na tieto položky pozrie. Nabité históriou a hrdosťou, to sú artefakty, ktoré v súčasnosti stoja oveľa viac, ako je ich hmotnosť v trojských unciach.


Nájdený: Stratený staroveký poklad Filipín a#8211 Gulf News

UNIKÁTNA výstava zlatých artefaktov z Filipín, ktorá sa datuje do 10. až 13. storočia, zaujala predstavivosť verejnosti v New Yorku. Okrem týchto jedinečných artefaktov z predkoloniálnych dejín Filipín vrhá táto zbierka zlatých ozdôb, dekoratívnych predmetov a ďalších predmetov so silným hinduisticko-budhistickým kultúrnym vplyvom aj iné svetlo na dejiny Filipín.

O histórii národa sa toho veľa nevie, kým španielske dobytie viedlo k tomu, že krajina bola kolóniou 400 rokov. Mnoho vedcov, výskumníkov a historikov v súčasnosti tvrdí, že zbierka sľubuje predzvesť „úplne nového porozumenia“ filipínskej histórie.

Výstava „Philippine Gold: Treasures of Forgotten Kingdoms“ bola otvorená v polovici septembra v Asia Society v New Yorku.

Filipínsky generálny konzul v New Yorku Mario de Leone, ktorého pozvali na ukážku do médií, pre Weekend Review uviedol, že výstava bola najväčšou filipínskou udalosťou svojho druhu, ktorá sa bude konať v New Yorku. "Toto je prvýkrát, čo sú tieto zlaté artefakty vystavené mimo Filipín," povedal.

Niektorí odborníci išli do takej miery, že porovnávali zložité zlaté práce so zbierkou uvedenou na výstave hrobky kráľa Tutanchamona a jeho pokladov.

Vynikajúcim kusom je plavidlo „Kinnari“ zo Surigao. Designed as half-woman and half-bird, it reflects the Indian mythical “kinnari”, a celestial female with wings and legs of a bird personifying beauty, grace and accomplishment.

Another masterpiece is a heavy gold caste cord that denotes the existence of a prosperous upper class with a strong Hindu cultural influence. And then there are lotus ear ornaments from Butuan, belt buckles from Mindanao and burial ensembles from Daet and elsewhere.

Florina Capistrano-Baker, who has a doctorate in the history of Asia-Pacific and in-depth knowledge of precolonial Filipino art, is a special consultant for international operations as well as consulting curator at the Ayala Museum in the Philippines. She told Weekend Review that “we ourselves were not aware of the Philippines’ Hindu past. As the gold artefacts here suggest, we had strong links with the Hindu culture in India or through Bali, Indonesia … this culture was ubiquitous in the Philippines”.

She rues that the period before Spanish colonialism was de facto “erased from the Filipino consciousness”. She cited similarities between the customs, culture, architecture, etc. that were prevalent at that time in Southeast Asia.

Capistrano-Baker says that the discovery of these gold artefacts had uncovered evidence of a lost civilisation, which was “revolutionary”.

“The economic implications will also be immense. By highlighting and depicting this past, we can attract tourism from countries that will have an inherent interest in such artefacts,” she said, adding that it will appeal not only to Hindu and Buddhist tourists from India, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia, but also from the West.

She said she would also seek material and research help available from India and other countries that should be interested in this discovery.

Adriana Proser, an Asian arts specialist and senior curator at the Asia Society, said that the spectacular works in the exhibition — including exquisite regalia, jewellery, functional and ritualistic objects, ceremonial weapons and funerary masks — stemmed from collections in the Philippines and were supplemented with objects from the United States.

“This exhibition showcases recently excavated objects that highlight the prosperity and achievements of the little-known Philippine kingdoms that flourished long before the Spanish discovered the region and colonised it,” Proser told Weekend Review.

The collection, which comprises about 120 objects, also reflects sophisticated gold-work techniques developed during this period. Most of the works in the exhibition are on loan from the Ayala Museum and the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas Gold Collection.

Many of the works, excavated between the 1960s and 1981, affirm the unprecedented creativity, prosperity and sophisticated metalworking tradition of the precolonial period. They also bear testimony to the flourishing cultural connections and maritime trade in Southeast Asia during what was an Asian economic boom.

Experts now want to find out the reasons behind the Spanish attempts to hide or even obliterate the Philippines’s precolonial history. Would it be an oversimplification to say they wanted to “Christianise” the country?

Filipino experts told this writer that in addition to the array of gold objects from various sites throughout the archipelago, archaeologists had recovered hundreds of clay crucibles for smelting gold, gold-working tools, and raw and wrought gold during the excavations of precolonial wooden plank boats (balangay) in Butuan in 1976.

In precolonial Philippine politics, village chiefs, called “datu”, ruled through consensus. Some of the objects showcased in the section Adornments for the Datu contain remains of the adornments, weapons and garments that marked the prosperity and power of the datu, whose similarity with the present-day Malaysian title “Datuk” or “Dato” (knighthood granted to Malaysians) is quite striking, though it is premature to claim historical etymological links between the terms.

An affluent datu who actively engaged in foreign trade assumed the loftier Hindu title “rajah”.

The exhibition is divided into four sections: archaeology, trade, the Kingdom of Butuan and the surrounding kingdoms.

Most objects trace back to the Kingdom of Butuan — a still scarcely understood civilisation centred on the island of Mindanao that rose to prominence in the 10th century before mysteriously declining in the 13th. But it took more than seven centuries for the objects to be found, and even after their discovery, they were not seen in the West for several decades.

Like in India and China, gold played an important role in the history of the Philippines, a country that, some geologists say, may have huge gold deposits.

According to Filipino experts present at the exhibition, many artefacts were dug out in the 1970s during the construction of a network of drainage canals. Among them were ceramics of Southeast Asian and Chinese origin, as well as boats used in trading. These details have been supported by records from China’s Song Dynasty, whose officials maintained contact with Butuan in the early 11th century. There is evidence to suggest that an enterprising and wealthy seafaring civilisation existed in the Philippines centuries before Spanish colonisation began with explorer Ferdinand Magellan’s arrival in 1521.

The discovery of these gold artefacts reads almost like a thriller. A construction site in Mindanao in southern Philippines in 1981 turned up what would be the most valuable Butuan cache. It was by sheer accident that Berto Morales, who was using heavy digging machinery, discovered a gold bowl. He dug further and discovered gold bracelets, vessels, necklaces and other ornaments. By the end of the day he had piled up a tidy collection of artefacts.

But Morales, unaware of the true value of his find, took the artefacts home and hid them for a while before approaching his parish priest to find out how he could benefit from the discovery — a decision he would later regret.

As word spread, gold hunters and other dubious characters thronged the site. And allegedly, even the military, on the pretext of protecting the finding, moved to the site to get “a fistful of gold”, as Filipinos like to say.

Meanwhile, Morales found his own life and that of his family in danger. His family was kidnapped and released when he paid ransom. He then fled the island and lived under a new name. But when he returned, the priest told him that the remaining items were not there any longer.

Luckily, some of the artefacts landed at the Central Bank whose governor Jaime Laya, an art collector, recognised the value of the objects. Many of the artefacts were also bought by Leandro and Cecilia Locsin, who prevented the objects from being melted and sold in the market — a fate that many other objects had faced.

Cecilia Locsin, an archaeologist, spared no effort to preserve the artefacts. In 2008, the Butuan gold artefacts were displayed at the Ayala Museum, protected by a special security force.

The exhibition has aroused interest in the Butuan Kingdom. As Capistrano-Baker put it, she would like the world to help unearth the “rich culture and history of the Philippines”.

Manik Mehta is a commentator on Asian affairs.

“Philippine Gold: Treasures of Forgotten Kingdoms” will run at the Asia Society, New York, until January 3, 2016. (By Manik Mehta. Special to Weekend Review – Gulf News)


12 thoughts on &ldquo3,500 Ton Philippine Gold Bars Unlawfully Shipped Out, But for Whose Benefit?&rdquo

yeah [email protected]&K THEM! not men who would throw them out., but God will (Isaiah 27:1)

Anyone read “GOLD WARRIORS” by Sterling and Peggy Seagrave? If so,don’t be surprised if any “Certified True copy of a Gold Bullion Certificate, claimed to be issued by Union Bank of Switzerland (UBS), covering 3,500 MT of 99.999 Gold” is later declared to be a forgery. Remember, possession is nine tenths of the law. Once someone has possession of any asset, what simpler way of paying nothing for it is there than claiming the receipt they gave is a forgery?
No one knows for sure how much gold, silver and precious stones were plundered up to the end of WW 2, but we do know that a hell of a lot of it ended up NOT in the possession of its rightful owners or their heirs.

This bugs me ..
Another attempt by the OP to talk about something he knows little or nothing about ..
We are talking about the Yamashita / Golden Lily Treasure ..
Are we not?
This goes back to Edward Lansdale of the OSS ..
He’s dead, we can’t talk to him ..
Col. Fletcher Prouty knew Lansdale ..
He’s dead, we can’t talk to him ..
Marcos is dead ..
They are ALL dead, aren’t they?
Who is alive, that IS an expert on this matter?
Anyone, anyone?
Bueller, Bueller?
Who spent an entire year in the Philippines, in 1986 assisting Marcos ..
Under orders of President Reagan, under the Truman Doctrine?
This same person who would later purchase 2,000 metric tonnes ..
Of gold bullion from the Soviet Union, soon to become ..
The Russian Federation, with same purchaser’s of said gold, assistance?
Do you think he just might be a “subject matter expert” here?
And, he is alive and well ………. for the part ..
It boggles the mind, why so many spend time and energy ..
On certain subjects, omitting certain “subject matter experts” ..
That could really shed some light here ..
Especially tying into what is going on this very nanosecond!
Like, say for instance ..
Why isn’t Trump telling us about the $60,000,000,000,000+ ..
In the US Treasury?
That is TRILLIONS ………….. with a “T”
Why would anyone in his right mind ..
Wish to, and/or feel/think they must BORROW ..
Another $8/9 TRILLION, over the next DECADE ..
To “rebuild America?”
When enough of us know for certain ..
That the so-called existing

$20,000,000,000,000 in national debt ..
Is ……………….. COMPLETE FRAUD!
.
And this has nothing to do with what is being reported going on in ..
The Philippines at this very nanosecond?
https://youtu.be/8tYTSR9gheQ
https://youtu.be/R1LhQ48L-Ls?list=PL1yWdjkeR-5JpXPL92NHlupE2E3xz6hIu
(Time spent in the Philippines is mentioned in Part 4, towards the end. Good to begin at Part 1 for full context.)

INTEL Update via email (Real News you Won’t Find on MSM “FAKE” Evening News)
1) Maryland Congressman Elijah Cumming’s secretary was responsible for the Rumor regarding the Russian Hacking of the election. Her house was hit with a “Direct Energy” Weapon and 6 children were killed. She is in hiding. At 4a.m. this morning, the military told the CIA, FBI, DHS and other agencies that if anything happens to Trump, they will take over the U.S. Government by massive force.
2) Yesterday, Donald Trump was sworn in as the next legal President of the U.S.
3) The European Union will be rearranged to include Russia.
4) The FBI is in 150 cities demolishing the Clinton foundation and exposing all terrorist Mosques.
5) China began its Tribunals yesterday.Up to 80,000 crooks will be tried in the coming months.
6) A Cache of weapons was found yesterday under a pile of trash in Washington D.C. by a woman who was out for a stroll.
7) The Duke of Luxemburg, who is a Draconian like Pope Francis, has been exposed as the real leader of the Order Of The Garter who gives orders to the elites who own the big corporations and are Millionaires and Billionaires.
8) The RV will go within 72 hours of the inauguration ceremony and N.E.S.A.R.A. will be announced. Currency exchanges have paid Tier #1, #2, and #3. Tier #4 is next. The gold to back this massive financial transaction is stored off planet at the Planetary Facility on Venus. Space shuttles have been secretly taking it there for months.
9) Colonies on Planet Mars began settlements in 1967. Mining operations have been ongoing since.
10) The secret arrests of 15,000 crooks is ending. The next phase will arrest even more as the FBI moves down the governmental chain to Lieutenant Governor.
11) We are living in a time of a world secret revolution and a large segment of citizens still have no idea what is going on which shows just how mind controlled the populations of the planet are.
________________________________

Nesara funds from Kennedy, being pillaged. OUR millenial nation building funds, being absconded by the banksters.

Do was buriedes anyone consider that some of the gold from the Philippines should go into relief of the children who run the streets without shoes, begging for food. The Japan military buried gold and many treasures into caves within the Philippine Islands, they hired the Filipino people to bury their treasures so that after bombing the United States the Americans would not find it when they countered Japan. This unsuspecting Filipino workforce was buried alive with the treasures so that their location would not ever be talked about. So on and so on, still the poor in the beautiful Philippine Islands are kept poor by their very own government and priest, without care or consideration. SHAME TO ALL WHO DESERVE IT.

Haven’t you all heard of Tiburcio Villamor Marcos Tallano Tangean IV, he is the successor, owner, heir, sole signatory to the world wealth? Google his name, The wealth is for the benefits of the Filipino people.

Gold for gold. Find the gold. Share the gold. Philippine Islands are “Riches Country in the World!” There are 950,000 metric tons of gold ( declared missing in the International Court of Justice in Hague) picked up by Yamashita from its European Ally, Hitler and another 250,000 metric tons of the Japanese loot around Southeast Asia are both now in the Philippines. Very few Filipinos knows this( Wall Street Journal, November 15,1985 issue wrote: “ Two Thirds of all the gold in the world is in Philippines and One third is divided among the rest of the countries of the world”) During A TALK SHOW in a U.S. TV , the week following the bombing of the New York Twin Towers, President George Bush was asked this question: Which is the richest country in the world today? With a smile he said “The Philippines.” In a US TV interview as well with President Barrack Obama, in his “700 Billion USD stimulus funds” for US economy, he was asked a question where will he get the billion dollar substantial funds needed and quoted saying. “We have friends outside US who will support us”.
The branded Yamashita Treasure was considered “booty”. There were varied country claimants who are victims of the said WWII loots and these countries filed protest and claims after the war in the International Court of Justice. Though, there was a passage of law for thirty years starting 1946, that without a valid claim against it this “booty” it would belong to its new possessor. That would have been in 1976. However, the International Criminal Court (ICC) extended the deadline of the claims to 10 years up to 1986. With the conspiracy of the International Banking Cartel, neither the ICJ denied the existence of these gold and claims. Sadly, Successive governments of the Philippines denied its existence and failed to acknowledged the gold. For almost 24 years, Information has been conspired to keep from being known to Filipino people.
This country is approximately a holder of estimated 1.2 Million Metric Tons of buried Gold excluding gold bullions way back to history of the “Maharlika” time. Only some of the Yamashita and Prince Chichibu buried gold in the Philippines has been found and the bulk of it is still around all over the archipelago to this day. Up to now, thousands of local individuals, company and foreign groups ventured secretly digging for it, including Japanese Treasure Hunters.
These gold loots are kept, transported, hoarded, concealed and buried in said to be 175 “imperial” vaults constructed in a maze of underground tunnels in the Philippines under the command and implementation of General Chichibu . The looting started in December 1937 in China’s Chinese Capitol of Nanking up to the advent and action of WWII .
Prince Chichibu is the younger brother of Emperor Hirohito and had been selected to head the ultra-secret treasure recovery team. The Prime Minister, Prince Asaka had come from the Emperor with instructions to fully implement the plan. This led to the Rape of Nanking and the death of 300,000 Chinese civilians and military. Many had been tortured to reveal the locations of treasures and summarily executed. This secret team was given a code name of the Golden Lily after a poem the Emperor had once written. 6000 metric tons of gold were recovered from Nanking alone plus silver and precious stones.
Prince Chichibu
Top military and government officials meet in Mukden, Manchukuo in late 1936 to discuss the forthcoming war with the Chinese, Americans, Netherlands and French. The Emperor of Japan and others had developed a plan to finance the expansion of their military and to construct the ships, planes and other military hardware that would be required in order to implement their plans.
In December 1937 Japan had openly declared war on China and had surrounded the Chinese Capitol of Nanking. Prince Chichibu, the younger brother of Emperor Hirohito had been selected to head the ultra-secret treasure recovery team code name: Golden Lily.
In July 1940, Winston Churchill, the wartime Prime Minister of Great Britain, met with Lord Beaverbrook. France had just fallen to Hitler’s blitzkrieg. The Germans had amassed their troops in the ports of France ready to cross the English Channel and invade Britain. Churchill had learned that the French had transferred their national treasures to French Indochina just before they had signed an armistice with the Germans. He had also learned from the Queen of The Netherlands that they had moved their treasures to the Dutch East Indies. He and the King of England decided to move the British treasures to the supposedly safe island fortress of Singapore off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula.
In 1941, Japan had sunk most of the American Pacific fleet with a sneak attack on Pearl Harbor. On December 1941 Christmas Day, Japan had taken most of the major port cities of China and had forced the British into surrendering Hong Kong. By early January 1942 Japan’s victories had been nothing short of miraculous. Guam and Wake lands had fallen. Japan had assimilated Thailand and the northern part of French Indochina. The Japanese had launched a vigorous invasion of the Philippine Islands and were pushing the Americans into a final defensive position on Bataan. Her armies were fighting their way down the Malay Peninsula approaching Singapore. Although the Japanese were encountering little resistance they were greatly outnumbered by the British and Indian troops. The Golden Lily team had been greatly expanded to handle these rapidly changing situations. It is fair to say that they were actually overwhelmed.
Emperor Hirohito had requested Prince Chichibu to fly to Hanoi in French Indochina to meet with his younger brother Prince Mikasa.
The Japanese secret police had learned that France had sent their National Treasures there.
But, where were they hidden? Prince Chichibu had ordered the torture of the Bankers and former Diplomats in order to find out. They learned the treasure had been sent to Saigon by rail just before the Japanese troops had moved into Hanoi. The treasure had been hidden in the ruins of an ancient temple at the end of track. The excitement of this recovery was only overshadowed by later events.
The fortress of Singapore fell to General Yamashita and with General MacArthur being ordered out of the Philippines, the last American and Filipino troops on Bataan and Corregidor surrendered to General Homma. The infamous Death March began. The Japanese victories on all fronts were extremely heady. They began to believe in their own invincibility. Burma was now in Japanese hands and invasion plans had been drawn up for a move into Northern Australia. Asia and Southeast Asia and most of the Islands in the Pacific were as good as theirs.
Prince Chichibu in Singapore was elated when his team found the treasures of Britain stored in the banks. The collection of wealth throughout the conquered lands continued. With over 5000 years of Asia’s antiquity to pillage, the amounts collected were astronomical. Far surpassing what was thought to be the total amount of gold ever mined throughout history. With Shanghai in their hands the Golden Lily team found themselves stretched to the limit in keeping up with the collection and melting down of the precious metals. Another surprise experienced by Prince Chichibu was the discovery that the Dutch had moved their treasures to Batavia in the Netherlands East Indies. Now, not only did Japan have the wealth of the Asian continent, but they were rewarded with much of the European treasures as well. Hitler’s loss was Japan’s gain.
Japan’s luck had begun to run out by May 1942. Their first setback was the Battle of the Coral Sea where the Allies had forced Japan to turn back her invasion fleet which they had planned to land in New Guinea. The following month they suffered a further major setback with the Battle of Midway where Japan lost four of her front line fleet carriers and the cream of her trained aviators. These were the same ships and pilots that had attacked Pearl Harbor five months earlier. In August 1942 the Americans landed an invasion force on Guadalcanal. Japan tried for months to dislodge the stubborn American Marines but eventually had to concede this unknown but important island base. After that Japan could never again launch another major offensive anywhere. The war would continue for another three years while the Japanese slowly lost the lands that they had conquered. Japan’s dream was over and their nightmare had begun.
By mid-1942 American submarines and aircraft had begun to take a serious toll on Japanese shipping. Prince Chichibu could no longer send the many tons of treasure back to Japan with any guarantee that it would get there and not end up on the bottom of the ocean floor. Actually he had to revise his thinking about where to send the treasures after the Midway fiasco. Following a meeting with his brother, the Emperor, it was decided that the treasures should be hidden in the Philippine Islands. Why the Philippines? Because Japan was certain that they would end up with these islands during surrender negotiations with the Allies. Also, it was the shortest distance from Hong Kong and Singapore where the material was being processed.
Prince Chichibu had begun shipping material to the Philippines even before this decision was made. It was originally intended to be sent on to Japan in returning war ships. The Prince was still nervous about these shipments even after the decision was made. He commandeered four large freighters and had them painted all white with a red cross on their sides. These were “hospital” ships which he loaded with the many treasures. To be absolutely sure that even these ships were not molested he announced their movement on a clear radio channel so that the Americans would know their times of departure and their courses.
PRINCE CHICHIBU IN THE PHILIPPINES
Prince Chichibu had moved his Headquarters to Manila in the Philippines. He had entrusted his younger brother Prince Mikasa and his cousin Prince Asaka to continue the collection of the treasures. Before he left he had begun to cut up the many golden pagodas and Buddha’s which were being melted down and poured into 75 kilo bars. This amassing of the treasures would continue until Japan ultimately surrendered.
Prince Chichibu was now faced with new challenges, Where and how to hide the treasures so that they could not be accidentally discovered after the war. The Prince was not as certain as his brother, the Emperor that Japan would end up with the Philippine Islands following their defeat. He decided that these treasures would have to be hidden in deep, well-engineered tunnel systems. He had no experience in mining and basically that was what was going to be required.
Major Nakasone was the only member of the Golden Lily team who had any mining background. He had studied mining engineering but never had any on the job training. He sent for him anyway. In the meantime he asked The Emperor for help and he responded by having someone locate twenty experience men in underground excavation in Japan who were quickly sent to the Philippines. If the Prince needed more workers, he would have to get them from the Filipinos. In addition the Emperor had reminded Chichibu that the POWs of the Americans and the British contained a lot of engineering experts especially those who served in the construction battalions.
Manpower was the least of his problems. There were thousands of POWs who the Japanese considered expendable. If that wasn’t enough then there were millions of Filipino males that could be used. As soon as here received his experts he immediately began work in a dozen locations. While this was going on the treasure ships were arriving weekly and their precious cargo had been added to the other treasure already stored in heavily guarded warehouses. There were other problems the movement of the cargo from the ships to the warehouses attracted a lot of attention. Chichibu decided to construct an underground tunnel system from the piers to the warehouses which were in the capture American base named Fort McKinley. Eventually this tunnel would branch out under Manila and run for 35 miles. The entrance was in Intramuros, the ancient walled city of the Spaniards, which was near the docks. It terminated at MacArthur’s headquarters in Fort McKinley.
Prince Chichibu had to make some other major decisions. Why not hide all the treasure in one large location? The Emperor had answered that question. Security. Too many people who had worked on the location would know where it was, also if someone should accidentally find the location all would be lost. Early on the Prince had made the decision that except for a few foreign engineers the entire work force would have to be exterminated. The next question was where could this work be done where the local population would not be aware of what was going on there. Japanese military bases were perfect. Only the military had access to them and most bases had POW camps nearby. Prince Chichibu visualized that when the Americans returned to recapture the Philippines that there would be massive bombings. The map makers needed permanent landmarks in order to relocate these sites after the war. The Americans had shown in Europe that they would avoid bombing historical buildings. The four hundred year old historical Spanish Churches and fortifications were perfect. But just to make sure he would house American POWs in them, mainly women and children. He would then arrange for clear radio communications to announce this fact. It worked, the Americans spared these sites.
Major Nakasone was at Fort Santiago, a 16th century Spanish fortification, collecting slave labors from the Kempeitai Headquarters’ dungeons and torture chambers. One of the physically strong Filipino’s he selected was Leopoldo Giga. Nakasone knew a Colonel Kantaro Giga who was one of his instructors at the military academy. Out of curiosity he decided to personally interview Giga. He found him an intelligent, 28 year old, who spoke fluent Japanese. He also learned he was a nephew of his academy instructor. Giga’s father was the brother of the instructor who was a minor diplomat who had been attached to the Japanese Embassy in the Philippines 1913. Giga’s mother had met the Diplomat and had become his common-law wife. Another advantage that Nakasone found in Giga was that he spoke two of the main dialects of the Filipino people. Instead of making him a slave laborer he assigned him to his staff. Giga came to the attention of Prince Chichibu who had him commissioned as a sub-lieutenant in the Imperial Army. He was sent to Japan to attend schooling on tunneling and inventorying the treasure. He returned a Captain and worked on most of the treasure sites.
Prince Chichibu was in Nueva Vizcaya in early 1942. He was examining a major excavation outside of the town of Bambang. He and his staff had a young Filipino boy who had come down with a fever and had died. He had been a houseboy who did the laundry of the Prince and his staff as well as kept their boots and other equipment cleaned and polished. He sent his aide out to locate a replacement. The Aide came back with a 14 year old uneducated farm boy whose name was Benjamin Valmores. During the next three and a half years Valmores traveled with the Prince to many of the sites all over the Philippines. He learned Japanese and a smattering of English. He was never allowed to go down into the tunnels, but he watched them being constructed and filled with the treasures. He and Giga would survive the war.
As the war reached its inevitable climax in early 1945 the Japanese were receiving more treasure than they could prepare sites for in which to hide it. Their warships became useless due to the American air- superiority, so they loaded them with these newly arrived treasures and pretended they were being sent back to Japan. Instead the Japanese deliberately sank or scuttled these ships and machine-gunned their own men so that the ships would go down in predetermined locations and no witnesses would be alive to tell the tale. There were thirteen of these planned sinking’s. Some of these went down in Manila Bay others were sunk in not to deep Philippine Waters throughout the archipelago.
The bloody war was over. The hopes of Emperor Hirohito and others to force the Americans to agree to a treaty that would allow Japan to keep some of the lands they had taken by conquest had been shattered. They had planned the final battle that they were certain would cause the Americans over a million casualties when they invaded the Japanese home islands. The two atomic bombs and Russia’s invasion of Manchuria in an attempt to annex some of Japan’s conquered lands had cause the Emperor to agree to an unconditional surrender. Now the conquerors wanted to bring to justice those who were responsible for the many atrocities. Over 4000 war criminals were charged. Of these 2400 received a prison sentence of three years or more and 809 were ultimately hung.
THE BRANDING OF “YAMASHITA GOLD”
The famous Yamashita Gold treasure trove takes its name from General Tomoyuki Yamashita, who assumed command of Japanese forces in the Philippines only in 1944, a year before the war ends. But, the irony of it, the whole treasure troves was not all buried by Yamashita as many believe. There are team of Japanese Officers and Generals assigned who lead the 14th Army in the Philippines ahead of him since the Japanese invasions and occupations in 1941 .
These generals were Lt. General Masaharu Homma Vice Admiral Ibo Takahashi Vice Admiral Nishizo Tsukahara Lt. General Shizuiki Tanaka Lt. General Shigenori Kuroda and some of their Chief of Staffs Major Gen. Takaji Wachi Lt General Haruki Isayama Lt. Gen. Tsuchino Yamaguchi Lt Gen. Ryuzo Sakuma and Lt. Gen. Akira Muto were burying already the bulk of gold loots carried over by the command and implementation of Prince Chichibu or General Chichibu way back starting 1942 up to early 1945. Only why it was branded as “Yamashita Gold” due to first news informed treasure recoveries in the late 70’s particularly of “Roxas – His Golden Budda” and the gold recoveries of “Sta Romana” in Northern Luzon buried by Yamashita who also was in charge then for the quick burying concealment because Japan is already losing the war . He was as well-known as “Tiger of Malaya” and strongly identified as the general tasked to transport the bulk of gold loots from Singapore to Philippines by Japanese Navy Fleets carrying himself to his new command post in the Philippines in September 1944 as 14th Area Army Commander. And the fact that, Yamashita was the last General on command of the Japanese forces in the Philippines during the unconditional surrender of Japan in 1945. The “gold” includes many different kinds of valuables looted from banks, depositories, mosques, temples, churches, shops, museums and private homes. It was intended that loot from South East Asia would finance Japan’s war effort. Most of the loot was first shipped to the port of Singapore, where it was then relayed to the Philippines. From the Philippines, it was intended that the treasure would be shipped to the Japanese home islands which did not materialized.
When the gold was buried, it was done in anticipation that the Americans would defeat the Japanese and the underground vaults, tunnels, and entrances were booby trapped with gas, explosives, and water. The water traps were created by digging 300 – 350 feet underground in the dry months, at which time the water table was at its lowest.
As the Pacific War progressed, Allied submarines and aircraft took a heavy toll on Japan’s shipping. Some ships carrying gold loots back to Japan were sunk. The Japanese military began to hide the loot in caves and underground complexes throughout the Philippines, hoping to recover it after the war was over. Many of those who knew the locations of the loot were either executed or incarcerated for war crimes, including Yamashita. Thus, the whereabouts of the treasure locations were lost. Many years later, Former Philippine President Ferdinand Marcos located some of the treasure and obtained part of his personal fortune from it. His recoveries are known as the “Marcos Gold “or “Marcos Wealth”. Aside from these finds, others finds are not sufficiently documented.
HITLER’S NAZI LOOT OF EUROPE, THE VATICAN AND ANTONIO DIAZ STA ROMANA CONTROVERSY:
In the early 1930’s, Europe was in depression and Germany was financially bankrupt, An unknown party leader emerged and promise the German people that he could create jobs and boost the economy. The Germans dared him and put him in power. His name is Adolf Hitler. In 1933, the Vatican and Hitler, a Roman Catholic signed a concordat and mutual protection and enhancement. That was apparently that Vatican was spared of the ruins of war in Europe during WWII. “Hitler was loaded with gold and money”. He built a massive army and manufactured weapons of war. Then Hitler took Poland. Before 1918 there was no Poland. That land was part of Germany and used as a buffer zone to separate Germany from Russia. But when Hitler reclaimed it, England declared war on Germany.
By the advent of the WWII, Germany and Japan made strong allies and positioned their army forces and manufactured weapons not only for war or expanding their empire but conquest for wealth and connived for the European and Asian Looting.
After the War, accordingly “Fr. Jose Antonio Diaz,”aka Fr Hayes Severino Garcia Sta Romana, et al and other used names formerly of the OSS and CIA was entrusted by the Vatican to take charge of Vatican gold buried on the Philippines. The claims of the “Vatican gold” was identified as bullion that had been “captured by Hitler” and that had belonged to the royal families of Europe and been placed under the trusteeship of the Vatican. It also includes gold bullions that was plundered by the Japanese under General Chichibu and buried in the Philippines.
P. Diaz had “assumed several names when he moved to the Philippines.” One of these was “Col. Severino Sta. Romana.” Being with the OSS after the war, he was able to retrieved, unlock on only some of the buried gold bullion treasures in Northern Part of Luzon, Philippine Island. By peacetime, he was also the major catalyst for the safe return of 640,000 metric tons of Gold owned by the royalty family of the former “maharlika” or the Philipines borrowed by the Vatican in 1939 and facilitated its return to the original owners in Philippines and rewarded with paid commissions of 30% of the returned gold. The value of the gold now estimated at $4 trillion in which anyone could raise eyebrows its existence. Where it is now? It was noted that Sta. Romana during that time had “hired the young Marcos as his lawyer and trustee.” By 1949, It was said the Two (2) richest man in the world were Fr. Jose Antonio Diaz and Atty. Ferdinand E Marcos . Perhaps, there is a good reason to believe now for people who defended and stay on hold to the programs of the former “strong man” that his wealth is “Not Ill-Gotten”.
In 1974, Fr, Jose Antonio Diaz, alias Severino Sta. Romana died and all that 30% commission in gold become the legendary “MARCOS GOLD”. In power, after providing for his family in Marcos “Letter of Instruction”, the whole wealth derived from this was supposed to be given to the FILIPINO PEOPLE. However, the “MARCOS GOLD or MARCOS WEALTH” was labeled as “Ill-Gotten” as some of Philippine Politicians and Churchmen kept on saying. There was nothing secret about the said.. “Marcos Secret Account”. History of and by the said “Letter of Instructions”, will show that the money was not stashed away and inaccessible but available to truly deserving Filipinos. Filipinos should know this. The grand scheme of these with these International banking cartels with the backdrop control of Superpower Nations with so much interest no less than by greed so that this country and its people will remain a slave and shackled to these foreign powers. They don’t want our country to be made a “ First World Country”. The phony scheme of the CIA backed EDSA “PEOPLE POWER REVOLUTION” exhibition in 1986 continually blinded FILIPINOS up to now and keep repeating that MARCOS was a thief so that those hundreds of billions of “ MARCOS WEALTH” will remain froze and not given to the Filipino people.
WHO SHOULD OWN THE GOLD TREASURES IN THE PHILIPPINES?
Apparently, after 1986 under the International Court of Justice, the gold treasure buried in the Philippines or in other nations will be owned by the possessor of it. Who are they? For Filipinos, It’s us Filipinos who have the control of private or government land allegedly to contain of these buried gold loots. However, in reality, we have to accept the fact that it was not ours since time in memorial this gold was owned by varied international country claimants. But who to prove it that it’s theirs? Even the International Court of Justice up to now denied its existence for reason how will they prove it? To “someone” who had accumulated the German and Japanese plundered gold gathered in by General Chichibu and General Yamashita obviously preferred not to come forward with their claims because such claims would possibly reveal the source of such wealth. To take note the Japan’s ravage of the war in Burma and Asian neighbors where their historical and ancient gold was looted , was cut , stripped, melted and formed into another gold bars. The war was over and it would be difficult to identify the actual ownership of these gold if found. However, gold hallmarks can do so, and the hallmarks still carry international warrants for claims. The come and go to the Philippines of mandates and representatives by the international gold bullion buyers from Europe, China, America etc. are taking advantage of huge buying % discounts from who would be finders and holders/sellers of the gold loots. To note, before transporting these items , a must buying policy that these hallmarks of gold identity would be first erased or removed and re-melted again into new dory or plain bars form before shipment and payments. Other buying schemes would have it shipped out after making any financial payment guarantees to the sellers and after re-smelting and refining, payments can be done off-shore. Thus, legalizing and documenting said gold treasures would be easy for them.

So much fraud and the same story that only the rich will benefit from this haul.


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